Intertextuality Essay Structure

Intertextuality refers to the way in which texts gain meaning through their referencing or evocation of other texts.


A term most fully and originally explicated by Julia Kristeva in the school of poststructuralism, intertextuality has taken on a variety of meanings since her discussion of the term in the 1960s. On its most basic level, intertextuality is the concept of texts' borrowing of each others' words and concepts. This could mean as much as an entire ideological concept and as little as a word or phrase. As authors borrow pro-actively from previous texts, their work gains layers of meaning. Also, another feature of intertextuality reveals itself when a text is read in light of another text, in which case all of the assumptions and implications surrounding the other text shed light on and shape the way a text is interpreted.

In response to Ferdinand de Saussure's claim that signs gain their meaning through structure in a particular text, implying that meaning is transmitted directly from writer to reader, Kristeva argued that because of the influence of other texts on readers' consciousnesses, texts are always filtered through "codes" which bring the weight of other, previous meanings with them. We are, then, already imbricated in a web of meaning created by other texts and the connotations surrounding them as opposed to deriving meaning directly from the structure of signs as Saussure would have it in his semiotics.


Ernest Hemingway draws language from metaphysical poet John Donne's "Meditation XVII" in naming his novel For Whom the Bell Tolls:

"No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friend's or of thine own were: any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee."

John Donne, "Meditation XVII," Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions

Critical Debates

{is the term contested, challenged, defined differently, etc.?}

Related Terms









Betrayal (literary)

Biographical readings




Comparative criticism

Comparative literature

Conventions (literary)



Cross-cultural studies

Editing (critical)


Filmic intertextuality
















Intertextuality in images

Literary theory








Narrative anchoring








Polysystem theory







Reading (and linking)











Schools (literary)









Structural intertextuality








For bibliographies on these related terms, see A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism, and Philology



Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. (The New Critical Idiom). London: Routledge, 2000. Rpt. 2001, 2002, 2003 (2).

_____. "Introduction." In Allen, Intertextuality. (The New Critical Idiom). London: Routledge, 2000. 1-7.

_____. "1. Origins: Saussure, Bakhtin, Kristeva." In Allen, Intertextuality. (The New Critical Idiom). London: Routledge, 2000. 8-60.

_____. "2. The Text Unbound: Barthes." In Allen, Intertextuality. (The New Critical Idiom). London: Routledge, 2000. 61-94.

_____. "3. Structuralist Approaches: Genette and Riffaterre." In Allen, Intertextuality. (The New Critical Idiom). London: Routledge, 2000. 95-132.

_____. "4. Situated Readers: Bloom, Feminism, Postcolonialism." In Allen, Intertextuality. (The New Critical Idiom). London: Routledge, 2000. 133-73.

_____. "5. Postmodern Conclusions." In Allen, Intertextuality. (The New Critical Idiom). London: Routledge, 2000. 174-208.

Angenot, Marc. "Lintertextualité': Enquête sur l'émergence et la diffusion d'un champ notionnel." Revue des sciences humaines 189 (1983): 121-35.

_____. "Intertextualité, interdiscursivité, discours social." Texte 189 (1983).

Bakhtin, Mikhail. Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics. Trans. Caryl Emerson. Minnneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1984. Trans. of Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo. 1963.

_____. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. 1938. (pub. 1970). Ed. Michael Holquist. Austin: U of Texas P, 1981.

_____. "Slovo v romane." Extract from "Iz predystorii romannogo slova." Voprosy Literatury 8 (1965): 84-95.

_____. "The Word in the Novel." Trans. of "Slovo v romane." Comparative Criticism Yearbook 2 (1980): 213-20.

_____. "Heteroglossia in the Novel." In Bakhtinian Thought: An Introductory Reader. Ed. Simon Dentith. London: Routledge, 1995. 1996. 195-224.

_____. "L'énoncé dans le roman." Trans. of "Slovo v romane." Langages 12 (1968): 126-32.

Bellemin-Noël, Jean. Le Texte et l'Avant-Texte. Paris: Larousse, 1972.

Bratosevich, Nicolás. "Intertextualidad y polifonía en dos cuentos argentinos contemporáneos." In Bratosevich, Métodos de análisis literario aplicados a textos hispánicos. Buenos Aires: Hachette, 1985. 2: 131-40.

Broich, Ulrich, and Manfred Pfister, eds. Intertextualität: Formen, Funktionen, anglistische Fallstudien. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1985.

Camarero Arribas, Jesús. "Tradición y poligénesis. Influencia, imitación y paralelismos. La intertextualidad." In E-Excellence

Clayton, Jay, and Eric Rothstein. Influence and Intertextuality in Literary History. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1991.

Dällenbach, Lucien. "Intertexte et autotexte." Poétique 27 (1976): 282-96.

Fairclough, Norman. "Discourse and Text: Linguistic and Intertextual Analysis within Discourse Analysis." Discourse and Society 3.2 (1992): 193-217.

_____. "Linguistic and Intertextual Analysis within Discourse Analysis." In The Discourse Reader. Ed. Adam Jaworski and Nikolas Coupland. London: Routledge, 1999. 183-212.

_____. "Discourse and Text: Linguistic and Intertextual Analysis within Discourse Analysis." In Critical Discourse Analysis: Critical Concepts in Linguistics. Ed. Michael Toolan. London: Routledge, 2002. 2.23-49.

Ferrer, Daniel. "Modo-Post: A Postmodern Reconsideration of the Avant-Texte." In Writing the Future. Ed. David Wood. London: Routledge, 1990. 30-36.

Frow, John. "Textuality and Ontology." In Intertextuality. Ed. Judith Still and Michael Worton. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1990. 45-55.

Garrigós González, Cristina. "Hacia una estética poliglósica de constructos heteroglósicos: literatura comparada e interculturalidad." BELLS 13 (Autumn 2004):

Genette, Gérard. Introduction à l'architexte. (Poétique). Paris: Seuil, 1979.

_____. "Introduction à l'architexte". In Genette, Fiction et diction. Précédé de Introduction à l'Architexte. (Points; Essais, 511). Paris: Seuil, 2004.

_____. The Architext: An Introduction. Trans. Jane E. Lewin. Introd. Robert Scholes. Berkeley: U of California P, 1992.

_____. Palimpsestes: La littérature au second degré. (Poétique). Paris: Seuil, 1982.

_____. Palimpsestes: La littérature au second degré. (Points; Essais, 257). Paris: Seuil, 1992.

_____. Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree. Trans. Channa Newman and Claude Doubinsky. Lincoln: Nebraska UP, 1997.

_____. Palimpsestos: La literatura en segundo grado. Trans. Celia Fernández Prieto. Madrid: Taurus, 1989. 1993.

Gómez Santamaría, Mª I. "Otro comienzo por Júpiter (Plin. 'Paneg'. 1)." In Intertextualidad en las literaturas griega y latina. Madrid and Salamanca, 2000. 283-95.

Haberer, Adolphe. "The Intertextual Effect." In Symbolism Vol. 5 (2005) – ("Special Focus: Intertextuality"). Brooklyn (NY): AMS Press, 2005. 35-60.

Hand, Seán. "Missing You: Intertextuality, Transference, and the Language of Love." In Intertextuality. Ed. Judith Still and Michael Worton. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1990.


Harveg, Roland. "Quelques aspects de la constitution monologique et dialogique de textes." Semiotica 4 (1971): 127-48.

Hutcheon, Linda. "Literary borrowing... and Stealing: Plagiarism, Sources, Influences, and Intertexts". English Studies in Canada 12.2(1986): 229-239.

Holquist, Michael. 'Dialogism: Bakhtin and His World'. London: Routledge, 1990.

"Intertextuality". Texte: Revue de critique et de théorie littéraire 2 (1983).

Johnson, Barbara. "Les Fleurs du Mal Armé: Some Reflections on Intertextuality." 1981. Rev. version in Johnson, A World of Difference. 1987. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1989. 116-36.

Kroeber, Karl. Retelling/Rereading: The Fate of Storytelling in Modern Times. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers UP, 1992.

Kristeva, Julia. "Bakthine, le mot, le dialogue et le roman." Critique 239 (1967): 438-65.

_____. "Le Mot, le dialogue et le roman." In Kristeva, Séméiotiké. Paris: Seuil, 1969. (Rpt. Points). 82-112.

_____. "Word, Dialogue, and Novel." Trans. Alice Jardine et al. 1967. In Kristeva, Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. Ed. Leon S. Roudiez. Trans. Thomas Gora et al. New York: Columbia UP, 1980. 64-91.

_____. "Word, Dialogue and Novel." In The Kristeva Reader. Ed. Toril Moi. Oxford: Blackwell, 1986. 34-61.

Lotman, Iury. "Tekst v tekste." Trudy po znakovym sistemam 14 (1981): 3-19.

_____. "The Text within the Text." (Selection. With a presentation by Julia Kristeva). PMLA 109 (1994): 375-84.

Mai, Hans-Peter. "Bypassing Intertextuality. Hermeneutics, Textual Practice, Hypertext." In Intertextuality. Ed. Heinrich F. Plett. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1991. 30-59.

Martínez Alfaro, María Jesús. "Intertextuality: Origins and Development of the Concept." Atlantis 18 (June-Dec.1996 [issued 1998]): 268-85.

Martínez Fernández, José Enrique. La intertextualidad literaria (Base teórica y práctica textual). (Crítica y Estudios Literarios). Madrid: Cátedra, 2001.

Meinhof, Ulrike H., and Jonathan Smith, eds. Intertextuality and the Media: From Genre to Everyday Life. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2000.

Montoro Araque, Rocío. "Creating Texts: The Role of the Reader and Intertextuality Processes." The Grove 1 (1996): 73-92.

Nielsen, Aldon L. Writing between the Lines: Race and Intertextuality. Athens: Georgia UP, 1994.

Onega, Susana. "Intertextuality." (Introd. to the section "Special Focus: Intertextuality"). Symbolism Vol. 5 (2005). Brooklyn (NY): AMS Press, 2005. 3-33.

Penas, Beatriz, ed. The Intertextual Dimension of Discourse: Pragmalinguistic-Cognitive-Hermeneutic Approaches. Zaragoza: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Zaragoza, 1996.

Pérez Firmat, Gustavo. "Apuntes para un modelo de la intertextualidad en literatura." Romanic Review 69 (1978): 1-14.

Perrone-Moisés, Leyla. "L'intertextualité critique." Poétique 27 (1976): 372-84.

Pfister, Manfred. "European Poststructuralism and American Postmodernism, or 'How Postmodern is Intertextuality'?" Actas del XIII Congreso Nacional de AEDEAN. Barcelona: PPU, 1991. 63-90.

_____. "How Postmodern Is Intertextuality?" In Intertextuality. Ed. Heinrich F. Plett. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1991. 207-24.

_____. "Konzept der Intertextualität." In Intertextualität: Formen, Funktionen, anglistische Fallstudien. Ed. Ulrich Broich and Manfred Pfister. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1985. 1-30.

Plett, Heinrich F. "Intertextualities." In Intertextuality. Ed. Heinrich F. Plett. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1991. 3-29.

_____, ed. Intertextuality. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1991.

Popovich, A. "Testo e metatesto (Tipologia dei sopporti intertestuali come oggetto delle ricerche della scienza della letteratura)." In C. Prevignano 1979. 521-45.</p>

Prince, Gerald. Dictionary of Narratology.

Riffaterre, Michael. "La syllepse intertextuelle." Poétique 40 (1979): 496-501.

_____. "Syllepsis." Critical Inquiry 6.4 (1980): 625-38.

_____. "La trace de l'intertexte." La Pensée 215 (oct. 1980): 4-18.

_____. "L'intertexte inconnu." Littérature 41 (1981): 4-7.

_____. "The Intertextual Unconscious." Critical Inquiry 13.2 (1987): 381-85.

_____. "The Intertextual Unconscious." In The Trial(s) of Psychoanalysis. Ed. Françoise Meltzer. Chicago, 1988. (Proust).

_____. "Intertextual Representation: On Mimesis as Interpretive Discourse." Critical Inquiry 11 (1984).</p>

_____. "Compulsory Reader Response: The Intertextual Drive." In Intertextuality. Ed. Judith Still and Michael Worton. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1990. 56-78.

Ruprecht, Hans-George. "The Reconstruction of Intertextuality." In Intertextuality. Ed. Heinrich F. Plett. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1991. 60-77.

'Symbolism' Vol. 5 (2005) – ("Special Focus: Intertextuality," ed. Susana Onega). Brooklyn (NY): AMS Press, 2005. 35-60.

Theis, Raimund, and Hans T. Siepe, eds. Le Plaisir de l'intertexte: Formes et fonctions de l'intertextualité. Frankfurt a/M, 1986.

Worton, Michael. "Intertextuality: To Inter Textuality or to Resurrect It?" In Cross-References: Modern French Theory and the Practice of Criticism. Ed. David Kelley and Isabelle Llasera. Leeds, 1986. 14-23.

Worton, Michael, and Judith Still, eds. Intertextuality: Theories and Practices. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1990.

Zholkovsky, Alexander. "Intertextuality, Its Content and Discontents." Slavic Review 47 (1988): 726-9.

Zumthor, Paul. "Le carrefour des rhétoriqueurs: Intertextualité et rhétorique." Poétique 27 (1976): 315-37.


Almazán García, Eva M. "La intertextualidad y la enseñanza del inglés en la formación de traductores e intérpretes: claves cognitivas." In Fifty Years of English Studies in Spain […] Actas del XXVI Congreso de AEDEAN, ed. Ignacio Palacios et al. Santiago de Compostela: U de Santiago de Compostela, 2003. 693-99.

Alvarez Amorós, José Antonio. ULYSSES como paradigma de la intertextualidad. 1990.

Banús Irusta, Enrique. "Europäische Literatur: Mitteilungen und Intertextualität." In Contemporary European Literature. Ed. Hans Felten and David Nelting. Frankfurt, 1999.

Baroni, Raphaël. "Surprise et compétences intertextuelles des lecteurs." In Vox Poetica:

Barthes, Roland. "De l'œuvre au texte." Revue d'esthétique 3 (1971).

_____. "De l'œuvre au texte." In Barthes, Le Bruissement de la langue. Paris: Seuil, 1984. 69-78.

_____. "La mort de l'auteur." Manteia 5 (1968).

_____. "La mort de l'auteur." In Barthes, Le Bruissement de la langue. Paris: Seuil, 1984. 61-68.

_____. "The Death of the Author." In Theories of Authorship. Ed. John Caughie. (BFI Readers in Film Studies). London: Routledge, 1981. 1995. 208-13.

_____. "The Death of the Author". 1968. In Barthes, Image-Music-Text 142-154.

_____. "The Death of the Author." In Barthes, The Rustle of Language 49-55.

_____. "The Death of the Author." In Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader. Ed. David Lodge. London: Longman, 1988. 166-72.

_____. "The Death of the Author." Select. in Twentieth-Century Literary Theory. Ed. K. M. Newton. London: Macmillan, 1988. 154-7.

_____. "The Death of the Author." In Modern Literary Theory: A Reader. Ed. Philip Rice and Patricia Waugh. London: Arnold, 1992. 114-21.

_____. "The Death of the Author." In Modern Literary Theory: A Reader. Ed. Philip Rice and Patricia Waugh. 3rd ed. London: Arnold, 1996. 118-22.

_____. "The Death of the Author." In Issues in Contemporary Literary Theory. Ed. Peter Barry. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1987. 53-54.

_____. "The Death of the Author." In Semiotics. Ed. Karin Boklund-Lagopoulou, Alexandros Lagopoulos and Mark Gottdiener. London: SAGE, 2002. Vol. 3.

_____. "From Work to Text". 1971. In Barthes, Image-Music-Text. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977. 155-164.

_____. "From Work to Text." In Debating Texts. Ed. Rick Rylance. Open UP. 117-22.

_____. "From Work to Text." In Literary Criticism and Theory. Ed. R. C. Davis and L. Finke. London: Longman, 1989. 712-17.

_____. "From Work to Text." In Modern Literary Theory: A Reader. Ed. Philip Rice and Patricia Waugh. 3rd ed. London: Arnold, 1996. 191-97.

Bate, Walter Jackson. The Burden of the Past and the English Poet. New York: Norton, 1972.

Blesa, Túa. Logofagias: Los trazos del silencio. (Anexos de Tropelías, Trópica, 5). Zaragoza: Universidad de Zaragoza-Tropelías, 1998.

Brown, Sarah Annes. "Arachne's Web: Intertextual Mythography and the Renaissance Actaeon." In The Renaissance Computer: Knowledge Technology in the First Age of Print. Ed. Neil Rhodes and Jonathan Sawday. London and New York: Routledge, 2000. 120-34.

Buning, Marius, and Sjef Houppermans, eds. Intertexts in Beckett's Work / Intertextes de l'œuvre de Beckett. (Samuel Beckett Today / aujourd'hui 3). Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994.

Caballero Rodríguez, Mª del Rosario. "The Strategic Use of Polysemy and Intertextuality in Titles." In AEDEAN: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference (León, 16-18 de diciembre, 1999). CD-ROM. León: AEDEAN, 2003.

Cave, Terence. The Cornucopian Text. Oxford, 1979.

Couturier, Maurice. "La transtextualité." In Couturier, Nabokov, ou la tyrannie de l'auteur. Paris: Seuil, 1993. 63-108.

Culler, Jonathan. "Presupposition and Intertextuality." Modern Language Notes 91 (1976): 1380-396.

_____. "Presupposition and Intertextuality." In Culler, The Pursuit of Signs: Semiotics, Literature, Deconstruction. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981. 100-18.

Dalgaard, R. "Hypertext and the Scholarly Archive: Intertexts, Paratexts, and Metatexts at Work." In Proceedings of the 12th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia. Aarhus, 2001 175-84.

Eco, Umberto. "Ironía intertextual y niveles de lectura." In Eco, Sobre literatura. Barcelona: RqueR editorial, 2002. 223-46.

Edmunds, L. Intertextuality and the Reading of Roman Poetry. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins UP, 2001.

Fairclough, Norman. "Intertextuality and Assumptions." In Fairclough, Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge, 2003. 39-62.

Fiske, John. "Intertextuality." In Fiske, Television Culture. 1987. London: Routledge, 1993. 108-27.

Garrigós, Cristina. "Postmodernism and Intertextuality: Some Notes on the Transfer of Characters in Postmodernist Texts." In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference of AEDEAN (Asociación Española de Estudios Anglonorteamericanos). Lleida, 17-19 December 1998. Ed. Pere Gallardo and Enric Llurda. Lleida: Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2000. 287-91.

García Landa, José Angel. "Actos indirectos y en general poco serios: La tradición literaria como pragmática intertextual." Paper presented at the VIII Seminario Susanne Hübner: Pragmatic Approaches to (Inter-)Textuality. Universidad de Zaragoza, 29 Nov.-1 Dec. 1995. Internet edition (2004):

_____. "Speech Acts, Literary Tradition, and Intertextual Pragmatics." In The Intertextual Dimension of Discourse: Pragmalinguistic-Cognitive-Hermeneutic Approaches. Ed. Beatriz Penas. Zaragoza: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Zaragoza, 1996. 29-50.

_____. "Speech Acts, Literary Tradition and Intertextual Pragmatics." iPaper at 29 March 2010.

_____. "Speech Acts, Literary Tradition, and Intertextual Pragmatics." Online PDF at Social Science Research Network 30 March 2010.

_____. "Hindsight, Intertextuality, and Interpretation: A Symbol in Nabokov's Christmas." Symbolism: An International Annual of Critical Aesthetics (New York: AMS Press), 5 (2005): 267-94.

_____. "Cognición retrospectiva, intertextualidad e interpretación." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 20 Dec. 2005:

_____. "The Road to Xanadu." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 4 Dec. 2005. (J. L. Lowes, intertextuality, imagination, association of ideas).

_____. "Linkterature: From Word to Web." Lecture at the International Conference on Internet and Language ICIL'05. Castellón de la Plana: Universitat Jaume I, 27 Oct. 2005

_____. "Linkterature: From Word to Web. Or: Literature in the Internet - Internet as Literature - Literature as Internet - Internet in Literature" (July 2006). PDF in Social Science Research Network

_____. "Linkterature: From Word to Web. Or: Literature in the Internet - Internet as Literature - Literature as Internet - Internet in Literature." In Zaguán 18 Feb. 2009.

_____. "Literature in Internet." In The Texture of Internet: Netlinguistics in Progress. Ed. Santiago Posteguillo, María José Esteve and M. Lluïsa Gea-Valor. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007. 143-61.

_____. "La misteriosa llama de la reina Loana." Rev. of Umberto Eco's novel. (Preliminary version). In García Landa, Vanity Fea 21 Dec. 2006.

_____. "La identidad intertextual: La misteriosa llamada de la reina Loana / The Intertextual Self: The Mysterious Flame of Queen Loana" Online PDF at Social Science Research Network (Dec. 2007).

_____. "La identidad intertextual: La misteriosa llamada de la reina Loana." Online PDF at 'Zaguán' 27 April 2009.

Goatly, Andrew. "Chapter 6: Intertextuality." In Goatly, Critical Reading and Writing: An Introductory Coursebook. London: Routledge, 2000. 163-78.

Hinds, Stephen. Allusion and Intertext: Dynamics of Appropriation in Roman Poetry. (Roman Literature and Its Contexts). Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.

Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms.

_____. "Metamorphing: Intertextuality, Adaptation, and Cultural Types." In Symbolism Vol. 5 (2005) – ("Special Focus: Intertextuality"). Brooklyn (NY): AMS Press, 2005. 61-75.

Klooss, Wolfgang, ed. Across the Lines: Intertextuality and Transcultural Communication in the New Literatures in English. (ASNEL Papers 3 / Cross/Cultures 32). Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi, 1998.

Kristeva, Julia. "Une poétique ruinée." Preface to La Poétique de Dostoïevski. By M. M. Bakhtin. Paris: Seuil, 1970.

_____. "The Ruin of a Poetics." (Intertextuality). In Russian Formalism. Ed. Stephen Bann and John E. Bowlt. New York: Barnes, 1973.

_____. Le texte du roman. The Hague: Mouton, 1970.

_____. El texto de la novela. Barcelona: Lumen, 1974.

Lampolski, Mikhail. The Memory of Tiresias: Intertextuality and Film. U California P, 1998.

Lawrence, Karen, ed. Decolonizing Tradition: New Views of Twentieth Century "British" Literary Canons. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1992.

López-Varela Azcárate, Asunción. "Recepción literaria y lector universal: Recepción e intertextualidad".In E-Excellence

Marks, Elaine. "Lesbian Intertextuality." In Homosexualities and French Literature. Ed. George Stamboulian and Elaine Marks. Ithaca (NY): Cornell UP, 1979.

_____. "Lesbian Intertextuality." In Sexual Practice, Textual Theory: Lesbian Cultural Criticism. Ed. Susan J. Wolfe and Julia Penelope. Cambridge (MA): Blackwell, 1993. 271-90.

Martínez Alfaro, María Jesús. "Overturning the 'Bowle of Creame': Some Reflections on Intertextuality and Gender." Tropelías 7/8 (1996/97 [Issued 1999]): 175-83.

Miller, J. Hillis. "The Ghost Effect: Intertextuality in Realist Fiction." In Symbolism Vol. 5 (2005) – ("Special Focus: Intertextuality"). Brooklyn (NY): AMS Press, 2005. 125-49.* (Hardy, G.Eliot, James).

Nykrog, Per. "In the Ruins of the Past: Reading Beckett Intertextually." Comparative Literature 36.4 (Fall 1984): 289-311. In The Critical Response to Samuel Beckett. Ed. Cathleen Culotta Andonian. Westport (CT): Greenwood Press, 1998. 120-43.

Onega Jaén, Susana, María Jesús Martínez Alfaro, Marita Nadal Blasco and Constanza del Río. "Mesa redonda: Intertextualidad, ¿préstamo, plagio, influencia... o algo más?" In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference of AEDEAN (Asociación Española de Estudios Anglonorteamericanos). Lleida, 17-19 December 1998. Ed. Pere Gallardo and Enric Llurda. Lleida: Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2000. 401-4.

Palmer, R. Barton. "Rereading Guillaume de Machaut's Vision of Love: Chaucer's Book of the Duchess as Bricolage." In 'Second Thoughts: A Focus on Rereading'. Ed. David Galef. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1998. 169-95.

Pier, John. "Identität intertextuell (am Beispiel vom amerikanischen Erzähltext)." In Identität /Identity / Identité: Akten des 7. Symposiums des Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Semiotik, Sigharting 1990. (Angewandte Semiotik 13). Vienna: ÖGS, 1998. 221-229.

Romero González, Tanya. "La intertextualidad en Atonement de Ian McEwan." In 'AEDEAN XXX: Proceedings of the 30th International AEDEAN Conference'. [Huelva, 2006]. Ed. María Losada Friend et al. Huelva: U de Huelva, 2007.

Russell, Elizabeth. 'Loving Against the Odds: Intertextuality in European Women's Writing in English: A Collection of Essays'. Oxford, Frankfurt, New York: Peter Lang. European Connections Series. 2006. Said, Edward W. "On Repetition." In Said, The World, the Text, and the Critic. 1983. London: Vintage, 1991. 111-25.

Saint-Gelais, Richard. "La fiction à travers l'intertexte: pour une théorie de la transfictionnalité." In Frontières de la fiction. Ed. René Audet and Alexandre Gefen. Québec / Bordeaux, Nota bene, Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, 2002. 43-75.

Schlaeger, Jürgen. "Truth, Fiction and Intertextuality in the Eighteenth-Century English Novel." In Symbolism Vol. 5 (2005) – ("Special Focus: Intertextuality"). Brooklyn (NY): AMS Press, 2005. 77-100. (William Beckford).

Stewart, Susan. 'Nonsense: Aspects of Intertextuality in Folklore and Literature. Baltimore, 1979.

Todorov, Tzvetan. Mikhail Bakhtin: The Dialogical Principle. Trans. Wlad Godzich. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984.

Verschueren, Jef. "Remarks on Pragmatics and Intertextuality: A Preface to 'The Intertextual Dimension of Discourse'." In The Intertextual Dimension of Discourse: Pragmalinguistic-Cognitive-Hermeneutic Approaches. Ed. Beatriz Penas. Zaragoza: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Zaragoza, 1996.

Vidal Claramonte, Mª Carmen África. "Autor / Texto → Clones / Hipertextos." In Autor y texto: Fragmentos de una presencia. Ed. Ángeles Sirvent, Josefina Bueno, and Silvia Caporale. Barcelona: PPU, 1996. 389-97.

Vodicka, Felix. "The History of the Echo of Literary Works." In 'A Prague School Reader on Esthetics, Literary Structure, and Style'. Ed. and trans. Paul L. Garvin. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown UP, 1964. 71-82.

Vultur, Smaranda. "La place de l'intertextualité dans les théories de la réception du texte littéraire." Cahiers roumains d'études littéraires 3 (1986): 103-9.

Warnke, Ingo. "Historische Dimensionen pragmatischer Textorganisation—Analytische Konzeption und empirische Untersuchung am Beispiel der Intertextualität in spätmittelalterlichen Reichslandfrieden." In Texte-Konstitution, Verarbeitung, Typik. Ed. Susanne Michaelis and Doris Tophinke. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Waugh, Patricia. "Just-So Stories? Science, Narrative, and Postmodern Intertextuality." In Symbolism Vol. 5 (2005) – ("Special Focus: Intertextuality"). Brooklyn (NY): AMS Press, 2005. 223-63.

Wolpers, T., ed. 'G'elebte Literatur in der Literatur: Studien zu Erscheinungsformen und Geschichte eines literarischen Motivs. Bericht über Kolloquien der Kommission für literaturwissenschaftliche Motiv- und Themenforschung 1983-1985. 1986.


Bruce, Don. Bibliography on intertextuality. In "Intertextuality". Texte: Revue de critique et de théorie littéraire 2 (1983): 217-58.

Mai, Hans-Peter. "Intertextual Theory—A Bibliography." In Intertextuality. Ed. Heinrich F. Plett. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1991. 237-50.


Intertexts: Journal of comparative literature. Lubbock (TX): Texas Tech UP.

Related works

Peterson, C. A. Photographs Beget Photographs. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1987.


(Intertext). London: Routledge, c. 1998.

"Intertext" redirects here. For the publisher, see Intertext Publications.

Intertextuality is the shaping of a text's meaning by another text. It is the interconnection between similar or related works of literature that reflect and influence an audience's interpretation of the text. Intertextual figures include: allusion, quotation, calque, plagiarism, translation, pastiche and parody.[1][2][3] Intertextuality is a literary device that creates an 'interrelationship between texts' and generates related understanding in separate works ("Intertextuality", 2015). These references are made to influence the reader and add layers of depth to a text, based on the readers' prior knowledge and understanding. Intertextuality is a literary discourse strategy (Gadavanij, n.d.) utilised by writers in novels, poetry, theatre and even in non-written texts (such as performances and digital media). Examples of intertextuality are an author's borrowing and transformation of a prior text, and a reader's referencing of one text in reading another.

Intertextuality does not require citing or referencing punctuation (such as quotation marks) and is often mistaken for plagiarism (Ivanic, 1998). Intertextuality can be produced in texts using a variety of functions including allusion, quotation and referencing (Hebel, 1989). However, intertextuality is not always intentional and can be utilised inadvertently. As philosopher William Irwin wrote, the term "has come to have almost as many meanings as users, from those faithful to Julia Kristeva's original vision to those who simply use it as a stylish way of talking about allusion and influence".[4]


Intertextuality and intertextual relationships can be separated into three types: obligatory, optional and accidental (Fitzsimmons, 2013). These variations depend on two key factors: the intention of the writer, and the significance of the reference. The distinctions between these types and those differences between categories are not absolute and exclusive (Miola, 2004) but instead, are manipulated in a way that allows them to co-exist within the same text.


Obligatory intertextuality is when the writer deliberately invokes a comparison or association between two (or more) texts. Without this pre-understanding or success to 'grasp the link', the reader's understanding of the text is regarded as inadequate (Fitzsimmons, 2013). Obligatory intertextuality relies on the reading or understanding of a prior hypotext, before full comprehension of the hypertext can be achieved (Jacobmeyer, 1998).


To understand the specific context and characterisation within Tom Stoppard's 'Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead', one must first be familiar with Shakespeare's 'Hamlet' (Mitchell, n.d.). It is in Hamlet we first meet these characters as minor characters and, as the Rosencrantz and Guildenstern plot unravels, specific scenes from Hamlet are actually performed and viewed from a different perspective. This understanding of the hypotext Hamlet, gives deeper meaning to the pretext as many of the implicit themes from Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are more recognizable.


Optional intertextuality has a less vital impact on the significance of the hypertext. It is a possible, but not essential, intertextual relationship that if recognized, the connection will slightly shift the understanding of the text (Fitzsimmons, 2013). Optional Intertextuality means it is possible to find a connection to multiple texts of a single phrase, or no connection at all (Ivanic, 1998). The intent of the writer when using optional intertextuality, is to pay homage to the 'original' writers, or to reward those who have read the hypotext. However, the reading of this hypotext is not necessary to the understanding of the hypertext.


The use of optional intertextuality may be something as simple as parallel characters or plotlines. For example, J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series shares many similarities with J. R. R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings trilogy. They both apply the use of an aging wizard mentor (Professor Dumbledore and Gandalf) and a key friendship group is formed to assist the protagonist (an innocent young boy) on their arduous quest to defeat a powerful wizard and to destroy a powerful being (Keller, 2013).


Accidental intertextuality is when readers often connect a text with another text, cultural practice or a personal experience, without there being any tangible anchorpoint within the original text (John Fitzsimmons). The writer has no intention of making an intertextual reference and it is completely upon the reader's own prior knowledge that these connections are made (Wöhrle, 2012).


Often when reading a book or viewing a film a memory will be triggered in the viewers' mind. For example, when reading Herman Melville's 'Moby Dick', a reader may use his or her prior experiences to make a connection between the size of the whale and the size of the ship.


Julia Kristeva was the first to coin the term "intertextuality" in an attempt to synthesize Ferdinand de Saussure's semiotics—his study of how signs derive their meaning within the structure of a text—with Bakhtin's dialogism—his theory which suggests a continual dialogue with other works of literature and other authors—and his examination of the multiple meanings, or "heteroglossia", in each text (especially novels) and in each word.[5] For Kristeva,[6] "the notion of intertextuality replaces the notion of "intersubjectivity" when we realize that meaning is not transferred directly from writer to reader but instead is mediated through, or filtered by, "codes" imparted to the writer and reader by other texts. For example, when we read James Joyce's Ulysses we decode it as a modernist literary experiment, or as a response to the epic tradition, or as part of some other conversation, or as part of all of these conversations at once. This intertextual view of literature, as shown by Roland Barthes, supports the concept that the meaning of a text does not reside in the text, but is produced by the reader in relation not only to the text in question, but also the complex network of texts invoked in the reading process.

More recent post-structuralist theory, such as that formulated in Daniela Caselli's Beckett's Dantes: Intertextuality in the Fiction and Criticism (MUP 2005), re-examines "intertextuality" as a production within texts, rather than as a series of relationships between different texts. Some postmodern theorists [7] like to talk about the relationship between "intertextuality" and "hypertextuality" (not to be confused with hypertext, another semiotic term coined by Gérard Genette); intertextuality makes each text a "living hell of hell on earth" [8] and part of a larger mosaic of texts, just as each hypertext can be a web of links and part of the whole World-Wide Web. Indeed, the World-Wide Web has been theorized as a unique realm of reciprocal intertextuality, in which no particular text can claim centrality, yet the Web text eventually produces an image of a community—the group of people who write and read the text using specific discursive strategies.[9]

One can also make distinctions between the notions of "intertext", "hypertext" and "supertext".[citation needed] Take for example the Dictionary of the Khazars by Milorad Pavić. As an intertext, it employs quotations from the scriptures of the Abrahamic religions. As a hypertext, it consists of links to different articles within itself and also every individual trajectory of reading it. As a supertext, it combines male and female versions of itself, as well as three mini-dictionaries in each of the versions.

Competing terms[edit]

Some critics have complained that the ubiquity of the term "intertextuality" in postmodern criticism has crowded out related terms and important nuances. Irwin (227) laments that intertextuality has eclipsed allusion as an object of literary study while lacking the latter term's clear definition.[10]Linda Hutcheon argues that excessive interest in intertextuality rejects the role of the author, because intertextuality can be found "in the eye of the beholder" and does not entail a communicator's intentions. By contrast, in A Theory of Parody Hutcheon notes parody always features an author who actively encodes a text as an imitation with critical difference.[11] However, there have also been attempts at more closely defining different types of intertextuality. The Australian media scholar John Fiske has made a distinction between what he labels 'vertical' and 'horizontal' intertextuality. Horizontal intertextuality denotes references that are on the 'same level' i.e. when books make references to other books, whereas vertical intertextuality is found when, say, a book makes a reference to film or song or vice versa.[citation needed] Similarly, Linguist Norman Fairclough distinguishes between 'manifest intertextuality' and 'constitutive intertextuality'.[12] The former signifies intertextual elements such as presupposition, negation, parody, irony, etc. The latter signifies the interrelationship of discursive features in a text, such as structure, form, or genre. Constitutive Intertextuality is also referred to interdiscursivity,[13] though, generally interdiscursivity refers to relations between larger formations of texts.


While intertextuality is a complex and multileveled literary term, it is often confused with the more casual term 'allusion'. Allusion is a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication ("Plagiarism", 2015). This means it is most closely linked to both obligatory and accidental intertextuality, as the 'allusion' made relies on the listener or viewer knowing about the original source. It is also seen as accidental however, as they are normally phrases that are so frequently or casually used, that the true significance of the words is not fully appreciated. Allusion is most often used in conversation, dialogue or metaphor. For example, "I was surprised his nose was not growing like Pinocchio's." This makes a reference to The Adventures of Pinocchio, written by Carlo Collodi when the little wooden puppet lies (YourDictionary, 2015). If this was obligatory intertextuality in a text, multiple references to this (or other novels of the same theme) would be used throughout the hypertext.


"Intertextuality is an area of considerable ethical complexity" (Share, 2006). As intertextuality, by definition, involves the (sometimes) purposeful use of other's work without proper citation, it is often mistaken for plagiarism. Plagiarism is the act of "using or closely imitating the language and thoughts of another author without authorization-" ("Plagiarism", 2015). Whilst this does seem to include intertextuality, the intention and purpose of using of another's work, is what allows intertextuality to be excluded from this definition. When using intertextuality, it is usually a small excerpt of a hypotext that assists in the understanding of the new hypertext's (Ivanic, 1998) original themes, characters or contexts. They use a part of another text and change its meaning by placing it in a different context (Jabri, 2004). This means that they are using other's ideas to create or enhance their own new ideas, not simply plagiarising them. Intertextuality is based on the 'creation of new ideas', whilst plagiarism is often found in projects based on research to confirm your ideas. "There is much difference between imitating a man and counterfeiting him"(Benjamin Franklin, n.d).

Related concepts[edit]

Linguist Norman Fairclough states that "intertextuality is a matter of recontextualization".[14] According to Per Linell, recontextualization can be defined as the "dynamic transfer-and-transformation of something from one discourse/text-in-context ... to another".[15] Recontextualization can be relatively explicit—for example, when one text directly quotes another—or relatively implicit—as when the "same" generic meaning is rearticulated across different texts.[16]:132–133

A number of scholars have observed that recontextualization can have important ideological and political consequences. For instance, Adam Hodges has studied how White House officials recontextualized and altered a military general's comments for political purposes, highlighting favorable aspects of the general's utterances while downplaying the damaging aspects.[17] Rhetorical scholar Jeanne Fahnestock has shown that when popular magazines recontextualize scientific research they enhance the uniqueness of the scientific findings and confer greater certainty on the reported facts.[18] Similarly, John Oddo found that American reporters covering Colin Powell's 2003 U.N. speech transformed Powell's discourse as they recontextualized it, bestowing Powell's allegations with greater certainty and warrantability and even adding new evidence to support Powell's claims.[16]

Oddo has also argued that recontextualization has a future-oriented counterpoint, which he dubs "precontextualization".[19] According to Oddo, precontextualization is a form of anticipatory intertextuality wherein "a text introduces and predicts elements of a symbolic event that is yet to unfold".[16]:78 For example, Oddo contends, American journalists anticipated and previewed Colin Powell's U.N. address, drawing his future discourse into the normative present.

Examples and history[edit]

While the theoretical concept of intertextuality is associated with post-modernism, the device itself is not new. New Testament passages quote from the Old Testament and Old Testament books such as Deuteronomy or the prophets refer to the events described in Exodus (for discussions on using 'intertextuality' to describe the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament, see Porter 1997; Oropeza 2013; Oropeza & Moyise, 2016). Whereas a redaction critic would use such intertextuality to argue for a particular order and process of the authorship of the books in question, literary criticism takes a synchronic view that deals with the texts in their final form, as an interconnected body of literature. This interconnected body extends to later poems and paintings that refer to Biblical narratives, just as other texts build networks around Greek and Roman Classical history and mythology. Bullfinch's 1855 work The Age Of Fable served as an introduction to such an intertextual network;[citation needed] according to its author, it was intended "...for the reader of English literature, of either sex, who wishes to comprehend the allusions so frequently made by public speakers, lecturers, essayists, and poets...".

Even the nomenclature "new" and "old" (testament) reframes the real context that the Jewish Torah had been usurped by followers of a new faith wishing to co-opt the original one.

Sometimes intertextuality is taken as plagiarism as in the case of Spanish writer Lucía Etxebarria whose poem collection Estación de infierno (2001) was found to contain metaphors and verses from Antonio Colinas. Etxebarria claimed that she admired him and applied intertextuality.[citation needed]

Some examples of intertextuality in literature include:

  • East of Eden (1952) by John Steinbeck: A retelling of the story of Genesis, set in the Salinas Valley of Northern California.
  • Ulysses (1922) by James Joyce: A retelling of Homer's Odyssey, set in Dublin.
  • The Dead Fathers Club (2006) by Matt Haig: A retelling of Shakespeare's Hamlet, set in modern England.
  • A Thousand Acres (1991) by Jane Smiley: A retelling of Shakespeare's King Lear, set in rural Iowa.
  • Perelandra (1943) by C. S. Lewis: Another retelling of the story of Genesis, also leaning on Milton's Paradise Lost, but set on the planet Venus.
  • Wide Sargasso Sea (1966) by Jean Rhys: A textual intervention on Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, the story of the "mad woman in the attic" told from her perspective.
  • The Legend of Bagger Vance (1996) by Steven Pressfield: A retelling of the Bhagavad Gita, set in 1931 during an epic golf game.
  • Bridget Jones's Diary (1996) by Helen Fielding: A modern chick lit romantic comedy replaying and referencing Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice.
  • Tortilla Flat (1935) by John Steinbeck: A retelling of the Arthurian legends, set in Monterey, CA during the interwar period.
  • Mourning Becomes Electra (1931) by Eugene O'Neill: A retelling of Aeschylus' The Oresteia, set in the post-American Civil War South.

In addition, the concept of intertextuality has been used analytically outside the sphere of literature and art. For example, Christensen (2016) [20] introduces the concept of intertextuality to the analysis of work practice at a hospital. The study shows that the ensemble of documents used and produced at a hospital department can be said to form a corpus of written texts. On the basis of the corpus, or subsections thereof, the actors in cooperative work create intertext between relevant (complementary) texts in a particular situation, for a particular purpose. The intertext of a particular situation can be constituted by several kinds of intertextuality, including the complementary type, the intratextual type and the mediated type. In this manner the concept of intertext has had an impact beyond literature and art studies.

See also[edit]


Works cited[edit]

  • Griffig, Thomas. Intertextualität in linguistischen Fachaufsätzen des Englischen und Deutschen (Intertextuality in English and German Linguistic Research Articles). Frankfurt a.M. et al.: Lang, 2006.
  • Irwin, William. ''Against Intertextuality''. Philosophy and Literature, v28, Number 2, October 2004, pp. 227–242.
  • Oropeza, B.J. "Intertextuality." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation. Steven L. McKenzie, editor-in-chief. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 1, 453-63; Oropeza, B. J. and Steve Moyise, eds. Exploring Intertextuality: Diverse Strategies for New Testament Interpretation of Texts (Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2016).
  • Pasco, Allan H. Allusion: A Literary Graft. 1994. Charlottesville: Rookwood Press, 2002.
  • Porter, Stanley E. "The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament: A Brief Comment on Method and Terminology." In Early Christian Interpretation of the Scriptures of Israel: Investigations and Proposals (eds. C. A. Evans and J. A. Sanders; JSNTSup 14; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997), 79-96.

Additional citations[edit]

  • "Intertextuality". (2015). Online Etymology Dictionary. website:
  • Comhrink, A. (n.d.). 'The matrix and the echo': Intertextual re-modelling in Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead. Attie de Lxmge[clarification needed].
  • Fitzsimmons, J. (2013). Romantic and contemporary poetry: readings. Retrieved from CQUniversity e-courses, LITR19049 - Romantic and Contemporary Poetry,
  • Gadavanij, S. (n.d.). Intertextuality as Discourse Strategy. School of Language and Communication
  • Hebel, J. U. (1989). Intertextuality, allusion, and quotation: an international bibliography of critical studies. Greenwood Press.
  • Ivanic, R. (1998). Writing and identity: The discoursal construction of identity in academic ... Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co.
  • Jabri, M. (2004). Change as shifting identities: a dialogic perspective. Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 17 Iss: 6.
  • Jacobmeyer, H. (1998). Ever After: A study in intertextuality. Carl Hanser Verlag, München. Available here
  • Keller, E. (2013). Crafting a masterpiece: The genre mosaic of Harry Potter. MSC, Harrisonburg, VA 22807. Available here
  • Kliese, M. (2013). Little Lamb analysis. CQUniversity e-courses, LITR19049 - Romantic and Contemporary Poetry.
  • Miola, R. S. (2004). Seven types of intertextuality. Manchester University Press.
  • Mitchell, M. (n.d.). Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead: Transformations and adaptation. (Sydney Studies Transformations and Adaptation, 39.) Macquarie University.
  • "Plagiarism". (2015). Online Etymology Dictionary. website
  • Share, P. (2006). Managing intertextuality – meaning, plagiarism and power. Institute of Technology, Sligo Abstract, 2nd International Plagiarism Conference.
  • National Institute of Development Administration, The (NIDA), Bangkok 10240, Thailand
  • Wöhrle, J. (2012). So many cross-references! Methodological reflections on the problem of intertextual relationships and their significance for redaction critical analysis. (Methodological Foundations-Redactional Processes-Historical Insights.) Walter de Gruyter.
  • YourDictionary. (2015), Examples of allusion. LoveToKnow Corp.

External links[edit]

  1. ^Gerard Genette (1997) Paratextsp.18
  2. ^Hallo, William W. (2010) The World's Oldest Literature: Studies in Sumerian Belles-Lettresp.608
  3. ^Cancogni, Annapaola (1985) The Mirage in the Mirror: Nabokov's Ada and Its French Pre-Texts pp.203-213
  4. ^Irwin,2, October 2004, pp. 227–242, 228.
  5. ^Irwin, 228.
  6. ^Kristeva, Julia. Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980, p. 69.
  7. ^Gerard Genette, Palimpsests: literature in the second degree, Channa Newman and Claude Doubinsky (trans.), University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln NE and London.
  8. ^Kristeva, 66.
  9. ^Mitra, Ananda (1999). "Characteristics of the WWW Text: Tracing Discursive Strategies". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 5 (1): 1. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.1999.tb00330.x. 
  10. ^Irwin, 227.
  11. ^Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms. New York: Methuen, 1985.
  12. ^Fairclough, Norman (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press, 117.
  13. ^Agger, Gunhild Intertextuality Revisited: Dialogues and Negotiations in Media Studies. Canadian Journal of Aesthetics, 4, 1999.
  14. ^Fairclough, Norman. Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. New York: Routledge, 2003, p. 51.
  15. ^Linell, Per. "Discourse across boundaries: On recontextualizations and the blending of voices in professional discourse," Text, 18, 1998, p. 154.
  16. ^ abcOddo, John. Intertextuality and the 24-Hour News Cycle: A Day in the Rhetorical Life of Colin Powell's U.N. Address. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2014.
  17. ^Hodges, Adam. "The Politics of Recontextualization: Discursive Competition over Claims of Iranian Involvement in Iraq, " Discourse & Society, 19(4), 2008, 483-505.
  18. ^Fahnestock, Jeanne. "Accommodating Science: The Rhetorical life of Scientific Facts," Written Communication, 3(3), 1986, 275-296.
  19. ^Oddo, John. "Precontextualization and the Rhetoric of Futurity: Foretelling Colin Powell's U.N. Address on NBC News," Discourse & Communication, 7(1), 2013, 25-53.
  20. ^Christensen, L.R. (2016). On Intertext in Chemotherapy: an Ethnography of Text in Medical Practice. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): The Journal of Collaborative Computing and Work Practices. Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 1-38


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