Examples Of Turabian Style Essays

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Formatting the Basics | Writing the Main Body | Formatting Citations and Bibliographies

If you are a School of Divinity student, you will need to refer to the School of Divinity Turabian Guide.


Formatting the Basics

Always check the requirements and preferences of your professor, department, and institution. They may have particular preferences for how a paper should be formatted.

Margins

  • Usually, margins are 1 inch on all sides, but the rule of thumb is no less than 1 inch and no more than 1.5 inches.
  • Our sample paper uses 1-inch margins.

Font and Typeface

  • The preferred font is Times New Roman.
  • The preferred size is 12 pt. font.
  • The Turabian manual requires that font be readable and no smaller than 10 pt. font.

Spacing

The entire paper should be double-spaced, apart from the following exceptions:

Page Numbers

You can use our Pagination Tutorial for Turabian to help format your paper.

  • Page numbers should begin on the first page of the paper's text, not on the title page.
  • Page numbers are most often placed on the top right of the page header or the bottom center of the footer.

Our sample paper puts the page numbers at the top right.

Note: The table of contents (if a paper has one) should have its own page numbers in Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, ix, etc.).

Title Page

Because the title page requirements may vary, we have a separate page, with visuals, for formatting a title page as either the typical title page for an undergrad paper or the typical title page for a dissertation/thesis.

Table of Contents

The table of contents should be structured around the main headings and subheadings of the paper. If it is long enough, a paper may require chapters with subdivisions.

Note: A table of contents usually has what’s called “Dot-Leader Tabs,” or a series of periods between the content title and its page number (Content Title………………...1).

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Writing the Main Body

This will present some basics about writing the body of your paper.

Voice and Writing Style

  • The paper should be written in the 3rd (he, she, it) person with an active voice. 
  • Unless a professor specifically asks for a paper in 1st (I, we) or 2nd (you) person language, avoid these in a paper.

Headings and Subheadings

  • It can be helpful to divide the paper into logical pieces, almost like “mini-papers” within the larger paper.
  • We have a separate page with visuals dedicated to understanding and formatting headings.

Incorporating Research and Quotations

Incorporating research that is credible and relevant helps to support and validate a paper's argument. 

With plagiarism, it’s better to be safe than sorry: if it’s not yours, cite it! Our page dedicated to incorporating research and avoiding plagiarism includes information on how to integrate summaries and paraphrases, quotations and block quotes, and more.

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Formatting Citations and a Bibliography

This will introduce the two styles used for citing sources and research within your paper.

Notes-Bibliography Citation Style

Used For

Citation Format

  • Footnotes or endnotes are the preferred methods to indicate in-text citations throughout the paper.
  • A bibliography is the preferred method for compiling sources in one list at the end of the paper. 

We can help create footnotes or endnotes or create a bibliography.

Search for Citations

Author-Date citation style

Used For

Citation Format

  • Parenthetical citations are the preferred method to indicate in-text citations throughout the paper.
  • A reference list is the preferred method for compiling sources in one list at the end of the paper.

We can help create parenthetical citations or create a reference list.

Search for Citations

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Material on this page adapted from Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th ed. In manual, see 7.4, 7.6, 7.9, 11.1-11.5, 15.1-15.4, 16.1, 18.1, A.1, A.2.

Notes-Bibliography Style: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate citations using notes-bibliography style. Examples of notes are followed by shortened versions of citations to the same source. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, click on the Author-Date tab above.

Book

One author

1. Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (Boston: Little, Brown, 2000), 64-65.

2. Gladwell, Tipping Point, 71.

Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000.

Two or more authors

1. Peter Morey and Amina Yaqin, Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011), 52.

2. Morey and Yaqin, Framing Muslims, 60-61.

Morey, Peter, and Amina Yaqin. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by "et al."("and others"):

1. Jay M. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics after Adorno (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 276.

2. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics, 18.

Bernstein, Jay M., Claudia Brodsky, Anthony J. Cascardi, Thierry de Duve, Ales Erjavec, Robert Kaufman, and Fred Rush. Art and Aesthetics after Adorno. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Editor or translator instead of author

1. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91-92.

2. Lattimore, Iliad, 24.

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Editor or translator in addition to author

1. Jane Austen, Persuasion: An Annotated Edition, ed. Robert Morrison (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011), 311-12.

2. Austen, Persuasion, 315.

Austen, Jane. Persuasion: An Annotated Edition. Edited by Robert Morrison. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.

Chapter or other part of a book

1. Angeles Ramirez, "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images," in Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, ed. Faegheh Shirazi (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010), 231.

2. Ramirez, "Muslim Women," 239-40.

Ramirez, angeles. "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images." In Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, edited by Faegheh Shirazi, 227-44. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

1. William Cronon, foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012), ix.

2. Cronon, foreword, x-xi.

Cronon, William. Foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege, ix-xii. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

1. Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration (New York: Vintage, 2010), 183-84, Kindle.

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders' Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, accessed October 15, 2011, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

3. Joseph P. Quinlan, The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 211, accessed December 8, 2012, ProQuest Ebrary.

4. Wilkerson, Warmth of Other Suns, 401.

5. Kurland and Lerner, Founders' Constitution.

6. Quinlan, Last Economic Superpower, 88.

Wilkerson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. New York: Vintage, 2010. Kindle.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed October 15, 2011. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Quinlan, Joseph P. The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Accessed December 8, 2012. ProQuest Ebrary.

Journal article

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.

Article in a print journal

1. Alexandra Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate," Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 156.

2. Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol," 157.

Bogren, Alexandra. "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate." Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 155-69.

Article in an online journal

For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to http://dx.doi.org/ rather than using the URL in your address bar. The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead.

1. Campbell Brown, "Consequentialize This," Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 752, accessed December 1, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

2. Anastacia Kurylo, "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum," China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 16, accessed March 9, 2013, Academic OneFile.

3. Brown, "Consequentialize This," 761.

4. Kurylo, "Linsanity," 18-19.

Brown, Campbell. "Consequentialize This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 749-71. Accessed December 1, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

Kurylo, Anastacia. "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum." China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 15-28. Accessed March 9, 2013. Academic OneFile.

Magazine article

1. Jill Lepore, "Dickens in Eden," New Yorker, August 29, 2011, 52.

2. Lepore, "Dickens in Eden," 54-55.

Lepore, Jill. "Dickens in Eden." New Yorker, August 29, 2011.

Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

1. Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat," New York Times, January 23, 2013, accessed January 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.

2. Bumiller and Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban."

Bumiller, Elisabeth, and Thom Shanker. "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat." New York Times, January 23, 2013. Accessed January 24, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.

Book review

1. Joel Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History, ed. Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson, American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 754, accessed December 9, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

2. Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History,752.

Mokyr, Joel. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson. American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55. Accessed December 9, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

Thesis or dissertation

1. Dana S. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools" (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010), 101-2.

2. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex," 98.

Levin, Dana S. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

1. Rachel Adelman, " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition" (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009).

2. Adelman, "Such Stuff as Dreams."

Adelman, Rachel. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009.

Website

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . . ."). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

1. "Privacy Policy," Google Policies & Principles, last modified July 27, 2012, accessed January 3, 2013, http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

2. Google, "Privacy Policy."

Google. "Privacy Policy." Google Policies & Principles. Last modified July 27, 2012. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text ("In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 16, 2012, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

1. Gary Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?," The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012, accessed February 16, 2012, http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

2. Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?"

Becker, Gary. "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012. Accessed February 16, 2012. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

1. John Doe, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2012.

Comment posted on a social networking service

Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text ("In a message posted to her Twitter account on August 25, 2011, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

1. Sarah Palin, Twitter post, August 25, 2011 (10:23 p.m.), accessed September 4, 2011, http://twitter.com/sarahpalinusa.

Author-Date Style: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate citations using author-date style. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 18 and 19 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the notes-bibliography system, click on the Notes-Bibliography tab above.

Book

One author

Gladwell, Malcolm. 2000. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown.

Two or more authors

Morey, Peter, and Amina Yaqin. 2011. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

(Morey and Yaqin 2011, 52)

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by "et al." ("and others"):

Bernstein, Jay M., Claudia Brodsky, Anthony J. Cascardi, Thierry de Duve, Ales Erjavec, Robert Kaufman, and Fred Rush. 2010. Art and Aesthetics after Adorno. Berkeley: University of California Press.

(Bernstein et al. 2010, 276)

Editor or translator instead of author

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Editor or translator in addition to author

Austen, Jane. 2011. Persuasion: An Annotated Edition. Edited by Robert Morrison. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Chapter or other part of a book

Ramirez, Angeles. 2010. "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images." In Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, edited by Faegheh Shirazi, 227-44. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

Cronon, William. 2012. Foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege, ix-xii. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Wilkerson, Isabel. 2010. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. New York: Vintage. Kindle.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Accessed October 15, 2011. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Quinlan, Joseph P. 2010. The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill. Accessed December 8, 2012. ProQuest Ebrary.

(Wilkerson 2010, 183-84)

(Kurland and Lerner 1987, chap. 10, doc. 19)

(Quinlan 2010, 211)

Journal article

In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range for the whole article.

Article in a print journal

Bogren, Alexandra. 2011. "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate." Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June): 155-69.

Article in an online journal

For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to http://dx.doi.org/ rather than using the URL in your address bar. The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead.

Brown, Campbell. 2011. "Consequentialize This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July): 749-71. Accessed December 1, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

Kurylo, Anastacia. 2012. "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum." China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October): 15-28. Accessed March 9, 2013. Academic OneFile.

(Brown 2011, 752)

(Kurylo 2012, 16)

Magazine article

Lepore, Jill. 2011. "Dickens in Eden." New Yorker, August 29.

Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013, . . ."), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Bumiller, Elisabeth, and Thom Shanker. 2013. "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat." New York Times, January 23. Accessed January 24, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.

(Bumiller and Shanker 2013)

Book review

Mokyr, Joel. 2011. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson. American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June): 752-55. Accessed December 9, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

Thesis or dissertation

Levin, Dana S. 2010. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

Adelman, Rachel. 2009. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24.

Website

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . . ."). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified. If there is no date listed on the site, use the access date as the primary date in the citation.

Google. 2012. "Privacy Policy." Google Policies & Principles. Last modified July 27. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text ("In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 16, 2012, . . ."), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Becker, Gary. 2012. "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12. Accessed February 16, 2012. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . ") instead of in parentheses, and they are rarely listed in a reference list. The following example shows a more formal parenthetical citation.

(John Doe, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2012)

Comment posted on a social networking service

Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text ("In a message posted to her Twitter account on August 25, 2011, . . .") instead of in parentheses, and they are rarely listed in a reference list. The following example shows a more formal parenthetical citation.

(Sarah Palin, Twitter post, August 25, 2011 [10:23 p.m.], accessed September 4, 2011, http://twitter.com/sarahpalinusa)

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